Category Archives: Bike Tech

Vanity, Thy Name is Gum Wall

“Vanity, thy name is gumwall.” With apologies to Ecclesiastes and Shakespeare for this corruption of a misquote, no one, not even the tire experts at “Bicycle Quarterly” suggests that there is any performance benefit to gum wall or tan wall tires. The more accurate and true quote fits here: “vanity of vanities, all is vanity” (Ecclesiastes 1). Why else would one seek out an attractive tire in favor of those that are known to perform superbly? 

Dream Tire

THE REALITY – Tan Wall, Gum Wall – there’s little evidence that under either term this tire feature adds anything to performance. The esteemed journal “Bicycle Quarterly” ( ) has tested every aspect of tire performance EXCEPT this one, so arguing that the color of the sidewall makes a difference is coffee time chit chat. Then again, appearance is important to performance so who’s to argue? See –

THE NEED – My Brompton came fitted with Schwalbe Kojaks (size: ETRTO 32-349, 16″ X 1-1/4) as ordered. Since these tires are basically slicks with no tread, they don’t look much different than an inner tube on the rim. With no tread wear to measure, it is hard to test the Kojak’s degree of wear until some cord starts showing – which it had not. But having discovered the Schwalbe Marathon Racer (size: ETRTO 35-349, 16 X 1-1/3) while preparing for the Kojaks’ inevitable end of life, I put it in the back of my mind this was the tire for me. I had experience with Schwalbe as a brand in addition to several credible YouTube analyses supporting the contention that the Marathon Racers were a good choice for the Brompton. (for a somewhat explanation of tire sizing, go here – In this case, the ETRTO (European Tire and Rim Technical Organization) inner diameter spec (349 mm in both cases) is of no value because the issue, as we will see, is with outer diameter, nominally both 16”).

THE BEST – The YouTube channel 2Bikes4Adventure (the “2Bikes” are Bromptons and the “adventure” is touring on them) has a video titled “The BEST TIRE for your Brompton” The hosts do a commendable job of analyzing competing 16” tires based on considerations of weight, puncture resistance, rolling resistance, and cost. This is not just another “everything is lovely” semi-promo review. This YouTube channel, 2bikes4adventure, suffers a little bit from the pressure by YouTube to have very short videos. Nonetheless, the program covers six different tires in the 16-in category as follows: Schwalbe’s Marathon and Marathon Plus, Continental’s Urban Contact and then the Racer, Kojak, Marathon One all by Schwalbe. They describe how each part of the evaluation was conducted and then graphically compare the different tires on their performance against each functional test – rolling resistance, puncture resistance, weight, cost, etc.

They note that the Racer is 35 gr heavier than the Kojak, for example. For puncture protection, they cite tests using a graduated plunger to pierce the inner tube and anti-puncture layer while measuring both the amount of penetration and the force needed to reach that depth. They allude to a pinch flat test wherein a tire is dropped on two sharp edges (as in a pothole). With the exception of falling into the ”more-psi-means-more-speed” trap, they do a nice review on the Tan Wall.

Kojak – Tan Wall

BROMPTON SCHWALBE MARATHON RACER TAN WALL – (Brompton Schwalbe Marathon Racer Tan Wall – YouTube ) The Tan Wall was originally unique to Brompton when introduced in 2020 and was fitted to the light-weight special edition Chapter 3 bicycle ( ). With a black titanium rear frame and fork, this model has a stripped back look with (significantly as will be seen) no mudguards (fenders) or front luggage carrier. It has premium grips, saddle, hinge clamps, and rear frame lever. The Tan Wall was otherwise not available to the public. \

A Pretty Pair

As a safety aside, the Tan Walls do not have a reflective sidewall element as is common with many contemporary tires – including the Kojaks.

THE FIRM – Schwalbe (in English, “Swallow”) has been around since 1922 under the name Ralf BOHLE GMBH (Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung  literally, a “company with limited liability”). In recent years, the company has dedicated itself to bicycle and wheelchair tires and tubes. It is headquartered near Köln, but its manufacturing is through collaboration with firms in Korea and Indonesia producing 14,000,000 tires per year. Schwalbe introduced the “Marathon” in 1983, the “Racer” in 2018, and the Tan Wall in 2019/2020. All three models rate high for puncture and pinch flat protection. The latter being of interest to riders in our local third-world-style roadways.

Fancy Schmancy Packaging

INSTANT APPEAL – When the Tan Wall option came along, my decision making was all over. A couple days after ordering them from my local bike shop, I got an email saying the tires are ready. So with the two new Marathon Racers and two new tubes I headed home to do the installation. That was to be postponed until the following day having done nothing more than open and unfold the tires and look at them. Unmounted, they impressed me as being quite large, and in the middle of the night I started to wonder if I was going to have a fender interference problem as is sometimes the case with even slightly larger tires.

INSTALLATION – The installation of the new tires went fairly smoothly until I remounted the rear wheel and heard the ominous rub, rub, rub.

Clearance Issue (hole is for mud flap mount)

No Fender Adjustment

The Brompton has a stubby mudguard extending horizontally from the rear fender and held by a 4 mm bolt, nut, and two flat washers. (Brompton likes washers – there are 13 on each of the rear EZ wheels.) Some investigation showed that there was very little adjustment possible with the fender relative to wheel and tire. Any effort to raise the fender runs into the unmovable luggage rack. Afterall, these are not SKS fenders (the best on the Planet for any Bike), but a proprietary Brompton design.*

The bracket that holds the fender closest to its rear extremity is attached to the luggage rack and the holes in the luggage rack and the fender brace are pretty much aligned with little play (aka “room for adjustment”). Aesthetically, the curve of the wheel and tire and that of the fender should have the same center point (the axle) and a constant fender-tire gap. Nonetheless, with the mudguard moved and the very slight play in the fender support taken up, the rubbing disappeared. But wait; what about the horizontal mud flap and the hole in the fender? Should I be forced to ride my Brompton without its mudguard on the rear fender? Am I to sacrifice a dry back to the Vanity of the Tan Wall Schwalbes? The answer clearly is “no” – I have a Brompton with fenders, and I want to continue to have a Brompton with fenders.

Horizontal Mud Flap + Hardware

RESOLUTION – Frame manufacturers who provide for fender mounting (with braze ons, etc.) forget that there has to be room between the frame and attached component (like wheels) for the fenders and their mounting hardware. Having struggled in the past with clearance between such mounting hardware and the frame bridge, I was somewhat equipped to address the Tan Wall-Brompton issue. The original stubby mudguard mounting hardware consisted of a round-head, hex drive bolt from the outside passing through a flat washer, the fender, the mudguard, another washer, and a 4 mil nut. Using the past solution, grinding off most of the bolt head and switching it around so the head was on the fender’s inside gave enough clearance for the tire to rotate freely. It is necessary to leave enough of the head to use a hex wrench for tightening or loosening in the future. Of course, a plain exposed nut would not do, so a substituted cap or acorn nut returned the mounting to functional acceptability. /

THE FUTUREThe tan is not worth the squeeze. At this point in the saga, the Brompton is rideable. But given the very tight non-rub clearance obtained and with fluctuations in weight, tire pressure, tire  and wear, and the security of the fender mount nut-and-bolt arrangement, there’s a risk of the problem returning. For other Bromtoneers, variation in manufacturing of tires and bicycles or other irregularities may preclude the simple “solution” reported here. Bicycle shops and owners would be well advised to remember this lesson if they are fitting Brompton Schwalbe Marathon Racer Tan Walls or Brompton Schwalbe Marathon Racers. Sadly, were I to have the opportunity to reconsider this (rather expensive) acquisition, I would have stayed with the Kojaks – don’t mess with success.


* Because all components and aftermarket customizations have to pass the “folded/unfolded” test, much of the Brompton is unique to it. Consequently, one cannot just throw on, say, a mirror and expect no issues. To allow a complete fold, one must test for add-ons like a bottle cage or lights.

Vane it may be, but also good looking

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Pederson Bicycle – The Ride for You

What bicycle has 14 steel tubes, connected at 57 places and forming 21 triangles? Kiss goodbye to saddle sores, backaches, and bone-shaking rides over Capital Region pot-holed streets.

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The hammock-like saddle cushions the Pedersen cyclist from all such discomfort.

A Contemporary Pedersen

That saddle sways with peddling motion to give almost complete suspension. The cycle’s designer, Danish inventor Mikael Pedersen wrote of the saddle: “It `gives’ in every direction, the weight is evenly distributed … you may take my word for it that all cyclists and especially ladies after once trying this seat will refuse to ride on any other.”

The Cantilever Bicycle – A Lasting Technology 125 Years Later – This 1897 article from the Scientific Topics section of the Evening Gazette Burlington, Iowa 8/17/97 tells the whole story. (The article, or variations, was also published in 1897 and 1899 in 16 other newspapers covered by the “Newspaper Archive”):

Evening Gazette Burlington, Iowa 8/17/97

“The accompanying illustration is from a photograph of the Cantilever bicycle, cycle construction, and its inventor, Mr. Nickall Pendersen (sic.). One of the features wherein this machine differs materially from the ordinary safety bicycle is the weight (ED: A “safety bicycle” is the grandparent of the standard bicycle frame design in use today). Cantilevers range in weight from the nine-pound racer to a wheel for rough use, which weighs 14 pounds. The construction is the outcome of the inventor’s desire to secure a perfect seat. Mr. Nickall Pendersen (sic.) is a Dane, residing in England, and he has been a wheelman for twenty years. His idea was to enjoy the comfort of a hammock on a bicycle, which he accomplished by the use of silk strings on which the saddle rests. The front forks are attached to the rest of the frame by a pivot connection at the top and by a strong pivot hinge at the point shown in the cut just where the lower part of the frame joining with the crank hanger goes up to a point near the top of the front wheel. This connection gives the machine a sensitive steering device.”

Dursley Pedersen Bicycle ca. 1910

Mikael Pedersen, the Inventor – Danish inventor Mikael Pedersen

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Mikael Pedersen

developed the Pedersen bicycle, also called the Dursley Pedersen. He produced the bicycle in Dursley, England. Though never hugely popular, Pedersens enjoy a devoted following and are still produced today. Your author spotted one in Albany several years ago. On 3/30/20, E-Bay featured a used 8-speed for $2,500. The unusual frame is a pure cross, marketed as cantilever, and features a distinctive hammock-style saddle. Variations include lightweight racing, tandem, and folding designs. Other Pedersen innovations include two and three-speed internally geared rear hubs. The latter were troublesome and not up to the quality of the other all-time-great (and only?) English invention, the Strumey-Archer hub gearbox.

The Move to the UK – Pedersen received a patent in the United Kingdom for his bicycle in the early 1890s and constructed the first model out of wood. He formed the Pedersen Cycle Frame Co. Ltd., and when that fell into financial difficulty, production continued at the Dursley Pedersen Cycle Co. The Pedersen Cycle Frame Co. also licensed the design was to other manufacturers, and, while approximately 30,000 units resulted by the early 1920s, the design never really caught on.

A Contemporary Pedersen

See lots and lots of Perdersend here – Pedersen bicycle – Google Search

In 1978, Jesper Sølling resumed production in Copenhagen and has been followed by others.

A Contemporary Pedersen – Count the Tubes!

The Hammock Saddle – Pedersen wrote that he developed the hammock style seat first. It provides suspension from road imperfections with much less weight, 4 ounces (110 g) instead of 3 pounds (1.4 kg) of traditional leather and steel spring saddles of the day. Pedersen then developed a frame, a truss assembled from several thin tubes, around his new seat design.

He attributed his inspiration to the Whipple-Murphy bridge truss. (Albany resident Squire Whipple was the first bridge builder to apply scientific principles to the field with his Whipple Truss bridge.*

Evolution of the Hammock Saddle – The frame design initially did not support seat height adjustment, and even after some adjustability was added, eight different sizes required manufacture. The non-standard frame design would not accommodate a traditional front fork. Instead, Pedersen developed a fork that also consisted of thin tubes assembled into a truss, which was attached to the frame with bearings at two distinct points, instead of through a traditional head tube. Pedersen also received patents for a chain wheel and bottom bracket combination and lightweight pedals.

Maybe another COVID-19 give-away will come through to finance your a “new” bicycle …

A Contemporary Pedersen

Selected videos to enhance your appreciation of the Pederesen foloow::



*  There are three Whipple Bridge samples in the Capital area – one leading to the residence of the Albany Police Department horses at Normanskill Farm (, one at the Visher Ferry Historic site, and a rare doublewide bridge in Town Of Claverack, Columbia County.

A Whipple truss has diagonal members working in tension. The main characteristic of a Whipple truss is that the tension members are elongated, usually thin, and at a shallow angle, and cross two or more bays (rectangular sections defined by the vertical members). The bridges are like a life-size “Gilbert Erector Set” that could have been assembled by a small work crew out of modernly light-weight components using basic hand tools – and, hopefully, some detailed instructions on how all the parts fit together. Whipple bridges were easy to transport and assemble and were common on the Erie Canal to connect parts of farms that canal digging divided and as “change bridges” where the mule team could cross to the other side of the canal. A notable side product of these and other Erie Canal bridges was the ever-popular “Low Bridge! – Everybody Down” also known as “Fifteen Years on the Erie Canal” or incorrectly as “Fifteen Miles on the Erie Canal.” Thomas S. Allen wrote the lyrics and music in 1913 possibly as a nostalgia song when the New York State Barge Canal with its tugs and self-powered canal boats drove the hoagies and their mules (and their way of life) out of business.

I’ve got an old mule and her name is Sal

 Fifteen years on the Erie Canal

 She’s a good old worker and a good old pal

 Fifteen years on the Erie Canal

We’ve hauled some barges in our day

 Filled with lumber, coal, and hay

 And every inch of the way I (we) know

 From Albany to Buffalo


 Low bridge, everybody down

 Low bridge cause we’re coming to a town

 And you’ll always know your neighbor

 And you’ll always know your pal

 If you’ve ever navigated on the Erie Canal

Get up there Sal, we’ve passed that lock,

 Fifteen miles on the Erie Canal

 And we’ll make Rome before six o’clock

 Fifteen years on the Erie Canal

One more trip and back we’ll go

 Through the rain and sleet and snow

 And every inch of the way I (we) know

 From Albany to Buffalo

Low bridge, everybody down

 Low bridge for we’re coming to a town

 And you’ll always know your neighbor

 And you’ll always know your pal

 If you’ve ever navigated on the Erie Canal.



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Pre-Trip Bike Maintenance Check Up from Adventure Cycling

PreambleAdventure Cycling’s Alex Strickland provided the following pre-ride tips for the upcoming “Bike Travel Weekend.” Even if your fall riding plans are a bit less ambitious, you might want to review these reminders. Adventure Cycling leads in with this: “Will you do us a favor and take a few minutes to check your bike before you leave for your Bike Travel Weekend & Bike Your Park Day ride? Here’s a quick checklist to help you stay safe.”

Jacques Tati et sa bicyclette, 1947 or ’49

Touring Basics – Your campground is reserved, your gear is laid out in an Instagram-friendly grid, and tomorrow’s the big day. Before you go, take 30 minutes for a quick run-through of your bike — the old “ounce of prevention” — to make sure your wheels are road-worthy before you strike out on an adventure.

Frame – Start with the frame and give it a good wipe down with a rag. Once the dirt and grime are gone, make a quick check for cracks, especially around the welds.

Tires – With the tires inflated, look for sharp debris or glass embedded in the tire, as well as any cuts that look like they go through the rubber and tire casing. Also check tread wear; if the top tread is starting to become square in shape (as opposed to rounded), or the casing is visible through the tread, it’s time to swap out for a new tire. If you’re running tubeless, adding a little fresh sealant is a good idea.

Wheels – Spin the wheels while straddling the bike and give them a quick spot check to make sure that they are round and true, and that there isn’t any excessive friction in the hubs. Also, give the spokes a quick squeeze to check for consistent tension.

Brakes – Check the pads (some rim brake pads have wear indicators) to ensure there’s enough material left. A quick visual inspection of the braking surface (rim or disc rotor) should uncover any issues there. Finally, check the lever feel and adjust cables or bleed hydraulic brakes if required.

Chain and Cassette – Chain and cassette wear can wreak havoc on your shifting and increase the chance of a broken chain. Looking at the cassette, focus on the teeth. If the cassette teeth come to a sharp point, the cassette should be replaced. As for the chain, you can use a chain checker tool to make sure that it isn’t stretched. If you don’t have one of these tools, you can look at how the chain lies over the front chainrings. If the chain doesn’t seat itself on the chainring properly, it’s probably ready to be replaced. A quick clean and lube of the chain is always a good idea.

Shifting – Run through the gears to make sure that the shifting is dialed in. Check cables and housing to make sure there isn’t any excessive friction or fraying.

Rack – Check for cracks and ensure mounting bolts are tight.

Bolts – Go over the bike from front to back, making sure all of the bolts are snug.

Take a Spin – The last step is to take the bike out of the garage and give it a quick spin around the block. Run through the gears, test the brakes, and listen for any creaks that might require further investigation.


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Love Thy Neighbor.

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Proudly Made in America Since 1898 – Worksman Cycles

Before you get concerned about “gender appropriation,” “Worksman” is not a marketer’s dream word – like Sear’s (R.I.P.) “CraftsMAN” or “LeatherMAN” – but recalls the company’s founder, Morris Worksman. He began building local delivery cycles in New York City more than 100 years ago.

“Our Goal is to bring a more efficient, reliable and healthful transportation to modern industry” – Morris Worksman, 1898.

If you were in NYC during the days before “electric motorcycles” as delivery vehicles, you may well have seen a Worksman or two zipping around the streets with deliveries or chained up at a green grocers ready to go.


In fact, you may have been lucky enough to get a Good Humor Ice Cream treat or a hot dog from a Worksman cargo bike or cart. Another use for Worksman cycles is ferrying workers, parts and supplies, and tools from and to work stations in industrial settings. A Worksman “look-alike” was spotted at the College of St. Rose in 2013.

Typically, the cargo box for trikes rested either between two steerable wheels with conventional chain power going to a single rear dive wheel or between two powered rear wheels with a single front wheel for steering. The two-wheel bicycle had a small front wheel that left room for a cargo box above the wheel and a swing-down front wheel stand.

Worksman Low Gravity – Model LGB – $609


Worksman Front Loader – Super Delivery Trike, Model SUD – $1,699


A quote from the company president, Wayne Sosin, suffices to establish their “Made-in-America” bona fides. We make the frames, we weld the frames, we powder coat the frames, we assemble the wheels, we weld the rear axle sprockets that are actually made in the U.S. The handle bars are USA, the stem is USA, the steel fenders we use are USA-made.” Most manufacturing is now in S. Carolina although the Ozone Park plant still produces the hot dog and food vending carts.

Nevertheless, and all that aside, what’s available for the recreational or personal transportation cyclist? Worksman has a supplementary line of street-ready cruisers (for bikeshare and rentals), folders, and trikes.

Worksman Port-O-Trike PT2FJR – $485


Worksman Folding Bike 3 Speed FMB3CB – $409


This posts sample folder speaks for itself with its photographic portfolio. It features a smooth shifting Strumey-Archer 3-speed hub, coaster brake, and 20 X 1.75”, 35-50 psi tires. This is not a compact fold and will benefit those with a low lift-over to their vehicle’s trunk area. The Chain card carries the company’s slogan, the down tube sings it praises, and the head badge shouts its lineage – “Pleasure Cycles – Ozone Park.”

Ready to ride – 

The fold – 




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